Francis Drummond

Francis DrummondProfessor Emeritus of Insect Ecology and Insect Pest Management, and Blueberry Extension Pollination Specialist

Degree: Ph.D., University of Rhode Island, 1986

Research Topic:
Wild blueberry production. Blueberry plant reproductive ecology; Plant stress from herbivory and frost; Population genetics; Agricultural production practices that affect pollination and vegetative growth; Evolutionary tradeoffs in flowering.

Research Program:
My research involving plant biology is very specific and at the same time, broad. Most of my research focus is on wild blueberry, although I have studied plant stress in sugarcane, potato, and the use of stress on algal communities as indicators of anthropogenic impact. I also work with wild blueberry farmers on matters pertaining to plant stress due to insect herbivory, losses due to frost, and pollination. My current research is focused on four topics. First, I have an interest in the ecology and population genetics of wild blueberry throughout its geographic range in the U.S. This research interest is centered on the blueberry breeding system and also on the variation in phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of frost tolerance. A second interest of mine is in pollination. The focus here is multi-tiered. I study the factors that affect pollination at the landscape level through effects on the bee community down to bee species efficacy of transferring pollen grains to stigma surfaces to plant evolutionary tradeoffs in flower production and June drop. My third interest is blueberry plant production. This research focuses on the interactions between agricultural production inputs and plant stress and resulting yield loss. This research is very applied and is conducted to elucidate the ecological and physiological effects that herbivores have on fruit production.


Danielson, T.J., C.S. Loftin, L. Tsomides, J.L. DiFranco, B. Connors, D. Courtemanch, and F.A. Drummond. 2012. An algal model for predicting attainment of tiered biological criteria of Maine’s streams and rivers. Freshwater Sci. 31(2): 318-340.

Bell, D.J., F.A. Drummond, and J.L. Rowland. 2012. Evidence of functional gender polymorphisms in a population of the hermaphroditic lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.). Botany 90(5): 393-399.

Rowland, L.J., F.A. Drummond, J. Graham, N. Alkharouf, E.J. Buck, J.F. Hancock, N.V. Bassil, C.E. Finn, and J.W. Olmstead. 2012. Generating genomic tools for blueberry improvement. Intl. J. Fruit Sci. 12(1-3): 276-287.

Bell, D.J., L.J. Rowland, and F.A. Drummond. 2012. Does pollen neighborhood affect berry yield in lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.)? Intl. J. Fruit Sci. 12(1-3): 65-74.

Drummond, F.A. 2012. Commercial bumble bee pollination of lowbush blueberry. Intl. J. Fruit Sci. 12(1-3): 54-64.

Drummond, F.A., J. Smagula, D. Yarborough, and S. Annis. 2012. Organic wild blueberry research and extension in Maine. Intl. J. Fruit Sci. 12(1-3): 216-231.

Bell, D.J., L.J. Rowland, and F.A. Drummond. 2012.Fine-scale spatial genetic structure associated with Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton (Ericaceae). Intl. J. Bot. 2(4): 72-82.

Drummond, F.A. and D. Yarborough. 2012. Growing season effects on wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) in Maine and implications for management. Intl. Small Fruit Jour. In Press

Danielson, T.J., C.S. Loftin, and F.A. Drummond. 2012. Comparison of benthic diatom models for estimating nutrient concentrations in Maine streams and rivers. Freshwater Biol.In Press

Bell, D.J., L. J. Rowland, J. Stommel, and F.A. Drummond. 2010. Yield variation among clones of lowbush blueberry as a function of kinship and self-compatibility. J. Hort Sci. 135 (3): 1-12.

Karem, J., F.A. Drummond, S.A. Woods, and C. Stubbs. 2010. The relationships between Apocrita wasp populations and flowering plants in Maine’s wild lowbush blueberry agroecosystems. Journal of Biocontrol Science and Technology 20 (3): 257-274.

Smagula, J.M., D.E. Yarborough, F.A. Drummond, and S. Annis. 2009. Organic Production of Wild Blueberries II. Fertility and Weed Management. Acta Horticulturae 810: 673-684.

Yarborough, D.E., J.M. Smagula, F.A. Drummond, and S. Annis. 2009. Organic Production of Wild Blueberries III. Fruit Quality. Acta Horticulturae 810: 847-852.

Peshlov, B.N., F.E. Dowell, F.A. Drummond, and D.W. Donahue. 2009. Comparison of three NIR spectrophotometers for infestation detection in wild blueberries using multivariate calibration models. Journal of NIR Spectroscopy 17: 203-212.

Arevalo, H.A., J. Collins, E. Groden, F. Drummond, K. Simon. 2009. Marking blueberry maggot flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) using fluorescent diet for recapture studies. Florida Entomologist 92(2): 379-381.

Drummond, F., S. Annis, J. M. Smagula and D.E. Yarborough. 2009. Organic Production of Wild Blueberries. I. Insects and Disease. Acta Horticulturae 810: 275-286.

Samson, P.R., K.J. Chandler, M.N. Sallam, and F.A. Drummond. 2009. A proposed monitoring system for greyback canegrub, Dermolepida albohirtum, to aid growers’ management decisions. Australia Society of Sugarcane Technologists 29: 91-93.

Griffin, T., G. Anderson, F. Drummond, E. Groden, W. Honeycutt, J. Jemison, L. Stack, and D. Yarborough. 2009. Agriculture, pp 39-42. In: Maine’s Climate Future: An Initial Assessment (G. Jacobson, I.J. Fernandez, P.A. Mayewski, and C.V. Schmitt, editors). University of Maine, Orono, ME. 70 pp.

Bell, D.J., L.J. Rowland, J. Smagula, and F.A. Drummond. 2009. Recent Advances in the Biology and Genetics of Lowbush Blueberry. Maine Agriculture Forest Experiment Station, University of Maine, Orono. Technical Bulletin 36 pp.

Welch A., Drummond, F.A., Tewari, S., Averill, A., and J. P. Burand. 2009. Presence and prevalence of viruses in local and migratory honeybees (Apis mellifera) in Massachusetts. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 75(24): 7862-7865.

Bell, D.J., L.J. Rowland, D. Zhang, and F.A. Drummond. 2009. Spatial genetic structure of lowbush blueberry, Vaccinium angustifolium, in four fields in Maine. Botany 87: 932-946.

Horsfield, A., M. N. Sallam, and F.A. Drummond. 2008. Role of climatic factors on damage incidence by greyback canegrub, Dermolepida albohirtum (Waterhouse) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), in Burdekin sugarcane fields, Australia. Journal of Economic Entomology 101(2): 334-340.

Bell, D.J., L.J. Rowland, J.J. Polashock, and F.A. Drummond. 2008. Suitability of EST-PCR markers developed in highbush blueberry for genetic fingerprinting and relationship studies in lowbush blueberry and related species. Journal of American Society of Horticultural Science 133: 631-722.